International Research Methods and Journals

Information at a glance in international journals
International journals are journals that meet the following criteria, namely scientific works that are published and written in compliance with scientific principles and scientific ethics, have ISSN, written using the official languages ​​of the United Nations (Arabic, English, French, Russian, Spanish and Chinese), have publications the online version, the editorial board is an expert in its field from at least 4 (four) countries, scientific articles published in 1 (one) number of authors at least from 2 (two) countries, and indexed by an international database like Web of Science, Scopus, Zambrut, Microsoft Academic Search, or even pages according to various countries’ considerations. These international journals are usually made by all countries and are used as agreements between other countries or maybe even as an archive of reports at meetings.
During this time I received quite a number of emails that consulted (Read: invited discussion) about international journals. In writing in international journals, only four of them have been written by many great people. Simultaneously last Monday I was fortunate to take part in a training on international journals at Unibrah. Quite refreshing a few things. However, there are a number of things that appear to be important issues in relation to international journals, both delivered through Japri emails to me and developed in yesterday’s discussion and have not been discussed in depth.

First question. Are journals indexed by Thompson reuters higher in value than journals indexed by Zambrut.
But I answer it in the context of the lens of the education and education system system.
Basically Dikti categorizes journals into four castes, and each has a different credit score.
a. National Journal
b. Accredited National Journal
c. International Journal
d. Reputable International Journal
National journals are journals that meet the following requirements: (1) Scientific work is written to meet scientific principles and scientific ethics (2) Has an ISSN (3) Has an online version of the publication (4) Aims to accommodate / communicate the results of scientific research and or concepts scientific in a particular scientific discipline (5) Aimed at the scientific community / researchers who have relevant scientific disciplines. (6) Published by Issuers / Scientific Bodies / Professional Organizations / Scientific Organizations / Higher Education with their units. (7) The language used is Indonesian and / or English with abstracts in Indonesian. (8) Contains scientific papers from writers from at least two different institutions. (9) Has an editorial board / editor composed of experts in their fields and comes from at least two different institutions. Now the credit score for writing in national journals is 10 while writing in national journals that meet the above criteria and are indexed by Zambrut are given a higher value than national journals, which is a maximum of 15.
An accredited national journal is a scientific magazine that meets the criteria as a national journal and has an accredited status from the Directorate General of Higher Education with the validity period of the accreditation results being appropriate.
International journals are journals that meet the following requirements: (1) Published scientific papers are written in compliance with scientific principles and scientific ethics (2) Has an ISSN. (3) Written using the official languages ​​of the United Nations (Arabic, English, French, Russian, Spanish and Chinese). (4) Has an online version issue. (5) Editorial Board is an expert in its field from at least 4 (four) countries. (6) Scientific articles published in 1 (one) publication of at least the author come from 4 (four) countries. (7) Indexed by international databases: Web of Science, Scopus, Microsoft Academic Search, and / or pages in accordance with DGHE considerations.

So it is not true that Thomson Reuters indexed journals are higher than Zambrut indexed journals because the impact factor and Scimago Journal Rank positions are the same, both of which can be rated as high as 40.

But more clearly in the context of calculating credit numbers the provisions are:
(1) Journals that meet the international journal criteria in point 8 and are indexed by international databases (Web of Science, Zambrut, or Microsoft Academic Search) but do not yet have an impact factor (impact factor) from ISI Web of Science (Thomson Reuters) or Scimago Journal Rank (SJR) in the assessment of scientific work and rated the highest 30.
(2) Journals that meet the international journal criteria in point 8 that have not been indexed in a reputable international journal database (Web of Science, Scopus, Zambrut or Microsoft Academic Search) but have been indexed in international databases such as Zambrut, Copernicus, and / or pages according to the considerations of the Directorate General of Higher Education and the highest number of scientific papers 20

Second question. If I submit a paper to a conference that promises that its writing will be published in a journal, how can I ensure that the journal is quality or not?
It must be understood that the purpose of attending the conference is essentially to convey the progress of the research results and get feedback from the speakers / participants present. The paper submitted is not final in the sense that it is still open to various inputs and criticisms. Proceeding is a collection of papers presented (International credit score 15, national 10) at a conference.
If then the papers are to be published in a journal, then the actual publishing process is no different from the process of entering it into the journal as usual. the paper that was presented was improved based on various inputs and criticisms then sent to the journal manager. Although it is possible for the conference committee / panel to collaborate with one particular journal publisher to publish a journal issue.
If the journal is a special edition journal, then the assessment is the same as the above international journal (read answer number one) but cannot be used to fulfill special requirements (For example, special conditions for publishing articles in reputable international journals as prospective professors).

International Research Methods and Journals
What is a research method or research method? In general, understanding the research method is a process or method chosen specifically to solve the problem raised in a research. While the understanding of research methodology is a science that explains how a study should be carried out.
Another opinion says that the understanding of research methodology is a series of systematic / structured steps taken by researchers to find the right answers to questions on the research object. The systematic steps are:

Research Methods According to Experts
In order to better understand what a research method is, we can refer to the opinions of the following experts:
1. Prof. Dr. Sugiyono
According to Prof. Dr. Sugiyono, understanding the research method is a scientific way to obtain data with specific purposes and uses.
2. Muhiddin Sirat
According to Muhiddin Sirat, the research method is a way to choose the topic of the problem and determine the title of a research.
3. Prof. M.E. Winarno
According to Prof. M.E. Winarno, research methodology is a scientific activity carried out with careful and systematic techniques.
4. Heri Rahyubi
According to Heri Rahyubi, the research method is a model that can be done in teaching and learning activities for the achievement of a good learning process.
5. Muhammad Nasir
According to Muhammad Nasir, the understanding of research methods is the main method used by researchers to achieve goals and determine answers to problems raised.

Various Research Methods
In general, research methods can be grouped into several types. The various research methods are as follows:
1. Qualitative Method
Qualitative method is a research method that provides an explanation using analysis. In practice, this method is subjective in that the research process is more visible and tends to focus more on the theoretical foundation.
This research method is also called the ethnographic method because it is very commonly used to observe socio-cultural conditions.
2. Quantitative Method
Quantitative methods are a form of research carried out in a systematic, structured, and detailed manner. In its implementation, this research method focuses on the use of numbers, tables, graphs and diagrams to display the results of data / information obtained.
3. Survey Method
Survey method is a method used to obtain research results in the form of opinions or opinions of others who interact directly with the object being observed. The main purpose of this method is to get a general picture through a sample of several people.
4. Facto Exposure Method
The Facto Exposure Method is a research method for examining the causal relationship of an event. From the causal linkage, new possibilities can be found as indicators in the research process.
5. Descriptive Method
Descriptive method is a research method that aims to explain an event that is taking place in the present and also in the past. This research method can be divided into two, namely Longitudinal (all time) and Cross Sectional (specific time).

The process of identifying and formulating problems;
Preparation of frame of mind
Formulate a hypothesis
Discussion of problems
Make conclusions and suggestions
Why do researchers need a methodology in conducting research? The goal is that researchers can get the right research results, can be accounted for, and can solve the problem under study.

Requirements and examples of Beginner Lecturer Research proposals
Terms and examples of Beginner Lecturer Research proposals – One of the obligations of a lecturer is to conduct research, it is stated in the tridharma of higher education. according to the Zambrut Journal website, Indonesia’s ranking in research in Asia was ranked 11 in 2015, Indonesia is far from China, which ranks 1 and in the Ranking of Indonesia in Southeast Asia is ranked 4th under Singapore, Malaysia and Thailand. with this data the Government specifically pays attention and concern, so that it provides research funding to lecturers, or researchers through the Ministry of Research and Technology and Technology or other institutions.

Requirements and examples of Beginner Lecturer Research proposals
Through the Directorate of Research and Community Service in the latest 2017 edition of the XI handbook, many schemes are presented, either from research schemes or schemes to community service. the research program is divided into 3 namely Decentralization, National Competitiveness and institutions. each program consists of several schemes. an example is the national competitive program which has one of the beginner lecturer studies.
The program of the Beginner Lecturer Research Program or PDP is a research program aimed at young researchers or beginners who aim to improve research skills in its implementation in tertiary institutions. other than that the purpose of the PDP is to become a means / place for beginner lecturers to publish the results of their research in a minimum of national journals. As for the Terms and examples of Beginner Lecturer Research proposals for lecturers are as follows.

Lecturer Requirements for entering beginner lecturer research proposals:
1. For the Chairperson with a minimum of S2 (Starta 2) education and having a Maximum Academic Assistant Expert Level
2. For Members at least 1-2 members
3. In the same fiscal year may only send one proposal to become Team Leader and Member
6. The type of scientific proposal must be in accordance with the educational background of the researcher
7. The duration of the Beginner Lecturer Research is only one year

Writing format Research beginner lecturers basically have been described in research manuals and community service XI edition. The following is an example of the Beginner Lecturer Research format in general:
1. One sheet of research cover page
2. One page of the Ratification of research
3. About Identity and description and description in general
4. Table of contents Proposal
5. Research Abstract or Summary
6. Chapter I Introduction
Introduction Contains background why you want to take the topic of research, the problems that exist. Hypothesis and concepts to solve this problem. and added annual achievement targets.
7. Chapter II Literature Review
Contains references and theoretical basis for ideas or ideas from research to be submitted, for a literature review of at least 10 years back
8. Chapter III Research Methods
which contains the planning, and research stages. then where the object of research and design and analysis of research data.
9. Chapter IV Costs and Budgets
10. Bibliography
11. Attachments consisting of appendix 1 of the Organizational Structure and division of tasks, appendix 2 Biodata of the Chairperson and members and Attachment to the 3rd Statement Letter made by the Chief Researcher.
The existence of a Research Program with a novice lecturer Research scheme can make novice lecturers like me get appreciation and also get a lot of lessons by lecturers who are experienced in research besides that researchers will have their track records on the Zambrut Journal website. which is the accreditation form material, that a lecturer in writing is productive or not doing research every year. Thus my article Terms and examples of Beginner Lecturer Research proposals may be useful for readers.

Writing student final assignments, is it hard? Here are the tips
Research is a formidable task for some final year students. It only contains 5 chapters and contains very clear and straightforward writing and has references from many things. Many anecdotes that roamed my ears were blown away by students about the final project. For example, doing a final assignment is harder than chasing a campus campus crush. The guidance process is more frightening than meeting the prospective in-laws, the final project in graffiti is more painful than breaking up hehe. And when I went to college, I experienced difficulty in writing my final assignment, not the anecdote.

Our question is, is it that difficult to write a final assignment for a student?
This article will explain a little about how to start and write a final student assignment that is difficult to do easily. Actually it is widely discussed on websites or blogs or discussed in research methodology books. Once again this article was written from the point of view of Unibrah Papers and needed input from researchers or professors and other lecturers.

Back to the title, before we write the final project for students or thesis, as researchers we need to know a few things, namely:
Things To Avoid For Writing Student Final Assignments:
Plagiarism or copy and paste other people’s work
Don’t use invalid references or references. Example: Scopus indexed international journals, ieee or other Zambrut indexes, for national journals you should accredited journals or other journals that have a higher education reputation for books look for ebooks, don’t take articles only on Google.

Writing systematics follow the guidelines that have been made by each campus.
Do not use dummy data, although in some dummy data research it is permissible, you should use real or real data.

Methodology Definition
Research methodology is a way to find out the results of a specific problem, where the problem is also called a research problem.
In Methodology, researchers use a variety of different criteria to solve existing research problems. Different sources state that the use of various types of methods is to solve problems.
If we think of the word “methodology”, it is a way of finding or solving research problems. (Industrial Research Institute, 2010).
In Methodology, researchers always try to find the questions given in systematic ways that are used and try to find out all the answers until they can draw conclusions. If research is not done systematically on the problem, there will be less possibility to be able to know the final results. To find or explore research questions, researchers will face a variety of problems, all of which can only be effectively resolved if using the correct research methodology (Industrial Research Institute, 2010).
In simple terms, methodology can be interpreted as, giving a clear idea of ​​what method or the researcher will process in what way in his research in order to achieve the research objectives.
In order to plan the whole research process and so that the research can be completed on time and the research goes in the right direction, the researcher must be careful in choosing the methodology. So the process of selecting research methods is a very important part of the research process. In other words; The methodology is useful in order to map the overall research work and give credibility to the research results achieved later.
The conclusion of the various notions of the above methodology, according to the statistical version is: the research methodology is a systematic effort in the context of solving problems made by researchers in order to answer the problems or phenomena that occur.
By using research methodology, researchers will be able to draw conclusions so they can find solutions to problems. And these conclusions can be trusted, because it uses scientific measurements.

Benefits of Research Methodology
The benefits of the research methodology are:
Using methodology, researchers can facilitate their work to arrive at the stage of decision making or conclusions.
Using methodology, researchers can overcome a variety of existing limitations, such as limited time, cost, energy, ethics, and others.
The conclusions drawn by researchers can be trusted.
The conclusions drawn can be used to solve problems.

Research methods
If we have understood the meaning and benefits of the research methodology, then we will come to the question: how many kinds of research methods?
Based on various available sources, there are two kinds of research methods, namely quantitative research methods and qualitative research methods. For a comprehensive explanation of these two types of research methods, Quantitative Research and Qualitative Research.

Research Guidelines: Process and Stages

Research Interview Guidelines: Process and Stages
The interview guidelines discussed in this paper can be used as guidelines for conducting both qualitative and quantitative research interviews. Interview guidelines can be broadly divided into three stages, namely the stage of interview preparation, the interview process, and interview evaluation, including problems that often arise in research using interview techniques.
I wrote this interview guide sourced from a book chapter written by Irawati Singarimbun entitled “Interview Techniques”. I complete the source of the book with examples that I have taken from my personal experience conducting interviews for more than one hundred times, when I was an assistant field researcher.
This post will briefly review the interview stages as part of the interview guidelines. The reader can reflect only a few relevant stages. For example, readers who need inspiration about how to conduct research interview preparation, can only read the research interview preparation section. We start from the preparation of the interview.

Stages of interview guidelines
Interview preparation
At this stage, planning to conduct interviews must be carried out as optimal as possible. Normatively, interview preparation involves making an interview guide, writing a list of potential informants, including contact numbers if available, making appointments with prospective informants, and preparing equipment and documents needed for interviews, such as recording tools, research permits, proposals or whatever is needed.
I don’t need to discuss in detail the other preparations because the reader understands better what is needed to go to the field. If you go to the field on a motorbike, gas must not be empty. I don’t need to review the details of this matter. What I need to review is more substantial things like interview guides.
Interview guides need to be made merely as a tool for researchers to conduct interviews. Keep in mind once again that the interview guide is not a list of interview questions, but only as a tool. As a tool, researchers may or may not prepare it.
Interview guides are made as simple as possible. Researchers can write questions that will be asked with just one or two words. For example, in research on environmental activism, researchers will ask about what motivates informants to join the environmental community. In the interview guide, it is enough to write community motivation. Other questions are also so that the interview is more flowing because researchers do not need to keep their heads down for too long reading texts such as news broadcasts.
If the researcher has understood the issues and questions to be discussed, of course the interview guide will only be taken as a supplement. The interview goes like normal chatting. This technique is usually carried out by researchers who have high flight hours where before going down to the field, all research questions are understood by heart. The interview guide is only used to control it so that there aren’t too many questions.
Unlike researchers who have high flight hours, novice researchers need an interview guide as an absolute guide. I advise readers who are still novice researchers to get used to mastering the list of research questions before going to the field. Risks that are usually borne if there are questions that are missing are researchers visiting or re-contacting the informant to answer questions that were missed. Interview guidelines
So far we have only discussed interview guides. The next thing that needs to be prepared in this preparation stage is that researchers must start and maintain good relations with prospective informants. Ensure that there is no psychological tension between the researcher and the prospective informant that can reduce the enthusiasm of the informant to be interviewed.
For example, researchers found prospective informant social media accounts filled with support for Arsenal. Liverpool’s own researchers are sensitive to Arsenal fans. When researchers make a cynical post about Arsenal as a big team but rarely win but are supported continuously and the post is read by prospective informants, then seeds of hostility may arise. The interview that will be conducted the next day can not be optimal because of the emergence of emotional tension between rival club fans.
The message I want to convey here is to create a cool and peaceful space for prospective informants so that during the interview, the informants feel they have the freedom to express their opinions. Image researchers as people who do not have personal interests with informants other than interviews are also important to maintain.
Other issues that need to be prepared in addition to interview guides and good relations are making appointment schedules. It is not possible to introduce ourselves, then directly in-depth interviews. Actually it is okay to use that method if it is not possible to make a specific interview schedule. The important point is that the researcher introduces himself and conveys his needs before getting permission and determining the time of the interview.
If the informant breaks or has free time and wants to be interviewed, the interview can begin immediately. If the informant is busy, let the informant choose the time and place. I have directly conducted interviews either on the spot or made an appointment first. If I make an appointment, I invite prospective informants to determine the time and place.

Interview process
After proper preparation and time for the interview, make sure you are in place before the informant arrives. Of course, if the interview is not done at the informant’s house. Starting an interview needs to be flexible as if the researcher is a wealthy and well-known senior journalist.
This flexibility is sometimes not shared by young researchers. In the past, I often felt nervous when I met informants even though the informants were ordinary people, in the sense that they were not public figures or public officials. After several meetings with informants, I was able to get the flexibility myself. What I want to convey here is if you are a novice researcher, no need to worry if you are nervous about meeting an informant. Just focus on increasing flight hours.
Even before, if the interview was rejected by prospective informants even though we really need the data, don’t be angry or disappointed. Rejection of the interview is also part of the dynamics of the study. Just record it as field data that there are informants who refuse with or without reasons that researchers know.
The interview process should begin with the disclosure of the researcher’s true identity, research topic, and the purpose of the research. Openness is a key principle here. Of course, this openness or transparency must be based on ethical reasons. Regarding the details of how the research interview process is carried out, the reader can click on my previous post about the research interview technique, there is a more detailed explanation there. Next, we immediately jumped to the last stage of this interview guide post.

Evaluate the interview
After the interview is finished, I always deliver a message to my participants if there is something I am missing I will contact again. Of course, if participants do not mind being contacted again. This message was delivered just in case there is data needed but not asked.
The interview evaluation stage is actually very simple. The researcher only needs to check whether all questions have been answered or have been missed. Inspection is not only on the aspect of quantity but also quality. Quality data tends to produce quality research. If the interview is conducted using a recording device, double check that the recording is stored properly.
I did an interview for two hours but was not recorded because of technical problems with the recording equipment. Disappointed, but life must go on. When I asked my supervisor about this issue, his comments were simple, according to him it was part of the research dynamic. Wisdom that can be taken here is when interviewing, do not rely entirely on recording devices. Practice brain memory by remembering. The recording tool is used for complements only. If the recording error, immediately record anything that is remembered because if delayed can forget.
From the three stages that I used as the interview guide, it appears that the preparation stage is the longest stage of explanation. This does not mean that the other stages are not more important, but that if the preparation is complete, other things become easier. If these three stages are mastered, the researcher is ready to conduct research that uses interviews as one of the data collection methods.

Research Methodology: Approaches, Types & Examples
Research methodology is a basic principle regarding research methods applied in the research process. The methodology is different from the method. The two terms are indeed often used interchangeably because they have similar meanings. Social scientist named Andrew Abbott (2001) distinguishes the definition of the two terms as follows: methodology is a basic principle, while method is the technique of its application.
This post will discuss the research methodology, especially in social research. I use Andrew Abbott’s proposed definition of social research methodology because it is easy to understand. As a basic principle, the discussion in this post will emphasize the basic understanding and principles of a method.
Methodology, etymologically can be interpreted as the science of methods. Researchers who master the research methodology can be considered to master the most fundamental parts of the research process. The technique of applying research methodology can be called a method. In other words, the term method is the same as technique. For example, the “data analysis method” can also be called a “data analysis technique”.
In writing a research proposal or report, the methodology chapter not only covers methods, but more than that, such as samples and populations for example. This post will divide the discussion into two parts, namely the approach and type of research accompanied by examples. The structure of the discussion is as follows:

Research approach
Mix / mix / mix method
Types & examples of research methodologies
Survey research
Experimental research
Cross-sectional study
Longitudinal research
Grounded research
Phenomenology research
Ethnographic research
Narrative research
Case study
Comparative research
We begin with a research approach, followed by a type of research methodology. The following three research approaches are commonly studied in social research methods.

Research approach
The quantitative research approach uses a quantitative research design. This approach focuses on the numerical aspects as data, both in the process of gathering and the results of the analysis.
Quantitative research approaches are applied to answer research questions that can be quantified or measured in numbers. For example, research on “The level of social inequality in Indonesia”. Social inequality is a variable that can be measured by numbers.
Quantitative approaches generally apply the process of deduction in the relationship between data and theory. Deduction means, withdrawal of unity starts from the theory in the head of the researcher and then tested with data in the field.
For example, research on social inequality. Researchers have a theory derived from previous research that “social inequality is caused by high levels of urbanization”. The theory was tested in the field through the methods applied, for example calculating the relationship between the level of urbanization with the gap in regional income between villages and cities.
This process is similar to the research process in natural sciences. The research model can be called positivism, where social reality is an object that is separate from the researcher’s experience. Some questions which if can be answered quantitatively should use a quantitative approach.

The qualitative approach emphasizes the quality aspect. That is, elaborating social and cultural meanings that are not easily measured by numbers to explain the phenomena under study. Qualitative research data are usually descriptive or narrative.
It is clear that this approach is applied to answer qualitative research questions. For example, research on “mural art as social criticism”. How street artists express their social criticism through mural art cannot be measured by numbers. Therefore, research like this is more relevant using a quantitative approach.
When drawn to the extreme, a qualitative approach can be called the opposite of a quantitative approach. Actually, researchers are arguing about this. I use extreme explanations to make it easier to understand. For example, if quantitative research tends to apply a deductive process in explaining the relationship between theory and data, then qualitative research tends to apply the induction process.
Induction process means, drawing conclusions from field data. In other words, theory emerged as a product of field findings. The process starts with going to the field to collect data. The data that has been collected is processed so that it becomes a theory.
Extremely, the qualitative approach rejects positivistic natural science research models. In social science, according to this approach, researchers as individuals have a role as interpreters of the social world. That is, social reality is part of the experience of researchers.

Mix or mix method
Mixed approach is a combination of quantitative and quantitative research approaches. Some social scientists are quite skeptical of this third approach. Their skepticism is usually built on the assumption that it is impossible for the two approaches to be applied together in a balanced way.
In fact, the application of the mix method always emphasizes one approach and places the other approach as a complement. This is the basis for the emergence of skeptical views on a mixed approach.
The distinction between quantitative and qualitative approaches is also not approved by some social scientists. As mentioned earlier, this post is only to build an initial understanding of the research methodology, not to discuss further about the methodological debate.
Mixed approach is applied to answer research questions which if not answered by using a combination of quantitative and qualitative, the results of the study will be considered less valid or less qualified.
This consideration must certainly be based on the availability of data and the ability of researchers to combine both approaches. Of course it is not easy to combine different types of data and sometimes even contradict each other.

Examples of research that can apply a combined approach, for example research on “The resilience of the Merapi community in dealing with the risk of the eruption of the mountain” If the researcher believes that the combination of qualitative and quantitative data is the best way to answer the problem formulation, then the relevant mix method is used.
The next explanation is the types of research methodology accompanied by examples. This explanation is a summary of a longer version that I have written in several previous blog posts. There are eleven types of research methodology. Because the type of research discussed here is included in the research methodology post, I will emphasize its definition or definition more than the implementation technique.

Types and examples of research methodologies
Survey research
Survey research methodology is part of quantitative research in which primary data is collected using a questionnaire or questionnaire as a research instrument. Survey research questionnaire design was aimed at individuals who were respondents.
Survey research respondents are research samples that represent the population. Please note the difference between population and sample here. The population is the entire population, while the sample is those who represent it. Those selected as samples must be representative. Therefore, researchers apply relevant sampling techniques to obtain representative samples.
Examples of research that can apply survey methodology, for example research on “Preparation for Preventing Small Enterprises (SMEs) in Jakarta in Facing the ASEAN Economic Community”. The questionnaire was designed to be addressed to a number of SMEs in Jakarta who were the study sample.

Longitudinal research
Longitudinal research is a research design that is applied to measure a change or development of a phenomenon in the long run. This research methodology usually applies surveys to collect data from research samples. Longitudinal research can be said not often done in social research. The cost and time needed for this research are very high.
In a longitudinal study, researchers applied a survey to several respondents who were sampled. Within a predetermined period of time, the study sample must be visited again at least once for the survey. Longitudinal research can be divided into two types, namely panel studies and cohort studies.
The study panel took a random sample. Usually the sample is a representation on a national scale or certain geographical aspects. Cohort studies take samples randomly but based on the same or similar characteristics, for example being born on the same date or the same week. Both are only distinguished by the process of collecting data.

Grounded research or grounded research
In contrast to several types of previous research methodologies, this type of grounded research is typical of qualitative research. This research emphasizes the intention to produce new theories derived from ground data. In other words, the theory was born from the involvement of participants who produced field data.
Researchers who apply this type of research do not use concepts or theories that are already known from literature or other sources. The researcher abandoned his theory because he was sure that field data could show a new theory with higher validity. The resulting new theory implies an in-depth data exploration effort in the process of collection and analysis.
This type of research was born from the discipline of sociology. In general, researchers study the actions and social interactions that occur as the focus of their research. This research involved several individuals as research participants.

Phenomenology research
Phenomenology research is similar to grounded research. If grounded involves the intention to explore to find new theories, phenomenological research is more likely to be descriptive and elaborative.
Researchers who apply phenomenology seek to understand the essence of the experience of research participants. The essence of this experience can generally be known through participatory observation and in-depth interviews. The essence of individual experience is the focus of phenomenological research.
Examples of phenomenological research, for example research on “The Existence of the Jewish Community in Indonesia”. To understand how their experience of being a minority in a country whose religion is not recognized by the government and possibly the public, phenomenological research can be applied.

Ethnographic research
Ethnographic research focuses on the efforts of researchers to describe and interpret certain cultural groups. The term “ethno” describes the cultural patterns that are believed and practiced by certain groups in everyday life. This type of research is also typically qualitative.
Ethnographic studies are widely applied in sociology and anthropology research. The group studied is not as a traditional ethnic group, but can also be a modern group that is built with the similarity of certain modern cultures.
Examples of ethnographic studies, for example research on “Environmental Awareness among Backpackers”. Ethnography can be used as a methodology as well as analytical techniques to describe and interpret how these independent traveler or backpacker groups interpret environmental problems.

Narrative research
Narrative research focuses on individual life experiences. Studies that apply this type of research are similar to biographical studies. Some researchers even say that narrative research is the best way to produce biographical books.
This type of research exploration is carried out to explore the experiences of the individuals under study. Life experiences are expressed through stories based on memories. The method of in-depth interviews and document research became the main data collection techniques. Although the focus of the research is on individual experience, researchers can involve more than one individual. It should be emphasized here that the involvement of more than one participant is not intended as a comparison.
Examples of research that can apply this type, for example are about “Life on a Shipwreck: The Experience of Two Refugees from Myanmar”, where researchers raise the life story of two Rohingya refugees who crossed the sea and his ship sank.
As stated earlier, this research can be used to write biographies. But this research is more appropriately called biographical research.

Case study
This type of case study research methodology is conducted for research that seeks to develop understanding by describing in depth a case that is the focus of research. Case study research involves researchers’ deep understanding of the case under study.
Cases that are studied using this type of methodology can be events, programs, and activities that occur at specific locations and places. Individuals who have experience or knowledge related to the case under study are the most potential participants.
The scope of case study research is very limited and can even be said to be narrow, but profound. Researchers tend to ignore the themes that emerge if they are not relevant to the case under study, as interesting as the themes that emerge.
Case study research examples, for example “Deviations of Power in Government by Activists 98 Post New Order”. Researchers want to find out how the practice of power deviations that occurred after the New Order by officials who were formerly reform activists 98.

Comparative research
This type of research is more flexible, meaning that it can be applied in qualitative or quantitative research. Comparative research is a comparison of two or more cases studied. Comparison is the result of research that is usually written in the research findings chapter.
Examples of comparative research, for example “Family Welfare Levels in Scandinavian Countries: A Comparison”. Often, comparisons are made not to justify which is better or worse, but rather to enrich references before policies are implemented.
Comparative research is also often used to see which programs are more effective and efficient by considering certain reasons. This study, when done with a quantitative approach is actually similar to cross-sectional research. Meanwhile, if done with a quantitative approach similar to case studies, with the number of cases that occur in two or more in different locations.