International scientific journals: Publication Processes and Examples
International scientific journals are published as a means or media for the dissemination of research results in certain disciplines or subdisciplines. Publications of international scientific journals are generally in the form of articles including research reports, literature reviews, proposals on untested theories or opinion articles. The form of the published article depends very much on the policy of the journal institution itself or the journal publisher.
Articles written in international scientific journals are produced by individuals in the scientific community. The scientific community can consist of students, teachers, lecturers, researchers, professors, journalists and so on. Writing the article can be done individually or collectively. In general we already know that articles written must be scientific, meaning that they are produced through a research process that applies scientific methods.
This post will briefly discuss the understanding of international scientific journals, how journals are published, and what they look like. I suggest readers to position this post as an introduction to what is a journal as we often hear the term in the academic world. We begin the discussion from the definition.
Definition of international scientific journals
International scientific journals are often called academic journals. In English it is translated as ‘scientific journal’ or ‘academic journal’. Academic journals can be described as a collection of scientific articles that are published regularly in order to disseminate research results. Disseminated research results often challenge general assumptions that circulate among the public or challenge (critique) the findings of previous research. Dissemination results can also display new data in the academic literature.
Academic journals are always specific, meaning that they are written in the perspective of certain disciplines or disciplines. In other words, represent specialization in certain scientific fields. For example, a journal called ‘Acta Sociologica’, is an academic journal in the discipline of sociology. To get a clearer picture of what an international scientific journal is, we need to know how the process of publishing an academic journal.
The publication process of international scientific journals
We first imagine that there is a scientific community that forms associations. I will explain through examples as ‘props’ only. Suppose there is a scientific association called Pop Culture Studies. The association agreed to make an international scientific journal focused on discussing the phenomenon of pop culture from an anthropological perspective. The journal was given the name ‘Zambrut Journal’. Pop Studies culture does not happen to have its own publishing agency, so they publish their journals in existing publishers. The publisher, for example, is named ‘ZAMBRUT’.
Here we see that Pop Studies Culture wants to publish a journal called ‘Zambrut’ published by ZAMBRUT. Then, how is the journal published? The process is actually similar to other international article publications. It’s just that the value highlighted is the scientific value and its contribution to the academic field and / or public policy.
To publish the ‘Zambrut’ Journal, we (the authors) send manuscripts (manuscripts of articles) to Zambrut International Journal. The writer can be anyone but Zambrut’s editor and revealer. The manuscript, of course, must be related to the study of pop culture. Once written, the manuscript is received by the Zambrut Editor, then collected and sent to reviewers of the Zambrut journal, which usually consists of experts. Delivery to reviewers continues with the peer-review process (F-Febii Journal Articles, 2017.)
What is peer-reviewed? Peer-review is the process by which two or more experts related to the topic we write evaluate our manuscript at the request of a journal editor. Reviewers carefully give judgments based on their expertise. This assessment will determine whether our manuscript is suitable for publication, needs revision, or is not suitable for publication.
Often the review process involves circulating manuscripts between reviewers. It is important to know that the manuscripts that arrive at the reviewer are usually anonymous. That is, the name of the author and the author’s institution have been temporarily removed to avoid bias or subjectivity in judgment. Reviewers themselves are also usually anonymous so that the writer can maintain his objectivity when accepting the results of the review.
After the evaluation or review process is complete, the reviewer sends the manuscript along with the results of his evaluation to the journal editor. The results of the evaluation generally take the form of comments and criticisms of the writing, including what the strengths and weaknesses are substantively and technically. The editor reads the reviewers’ comments to consider whether the manuscript (article) is worthy of publication, needs to be revised or rejected.
One question that often arises is about payment. Does the reviewer receive financial compensation for his services? This depends on the institution of the journal. If the Pop Studies Cultural Association budgeted a fee for the reviewer, the reviewer would get paid for his services. Like reviewers, writers too. Some writers get paid, some don’t. In fact there are also writers who must pay when the article is published.
Another question that also often arises in the world of journalism is, does the content of journal articles reflect the position of the editor, journal management association, and journal publisher? The answer is no. Journal articles reflect the thoughts of their authors. Quite often journal publications are accompanied by a disclaimer that journal content does not represent the views of the journalists’ associations and publishers.
Benefits of international scientific journals
Some of the benefits that can be mentioned here include:
»As a means of developing knowledge. International scientific journals are the arena of intellectual discourse through writing. The development of science can be done with research findings, criticism of research findings, consensus building and new findings. The process continues. That’s how science develops and journals play an important role as a means.
»As a public policy database. Public policy requires academic texts as its foundation. Journals can act as a scientific basis for making public policy. Without scientific basis, public policy can be said to be made arbitrarily.
Several other benefits can be mentioned both qualitatively and quantitatively. Quantitatively, for example, the number of international scientific journal publications is usually used as a benchmark for the progress of an institution or institution such as a country, university, study center, and so on.
Research Design: Definition and Examples
The research design is a framework or sketch designed by researchers as a research plan (research plan). Research designs that are submitted for approval to conduct research are commonly called research proposals.
There are opinions that say that the research design can also be called a research design. Between the research plan and the research design, although definitively different, they can be referred to here as part of the research design.
Before discussing further research designs, we need to agree in advance what we mean as research designs. Some researchers say that the research design can be interpreted from the side, namely in the narrow sense and in the broad sense.
In the narrow sense, the research design includes the process of collecting and analyzing data. While in the broadest sense includes the entire research process from planning to reporting. The discussion of the research design in this post will depart from understanding in a broad sense.
Definition of research design
As mentioned above, the research design can be defined as a specific sketch or framework designed by researchers that describes the overall research process plan.
The reader may refer to it as a research plan or research design, provided that what is meant here is the same as the definition above. I deliberately do not dispute the definition between design, plan, and research design because in several lectures on research methods, teachers often use them interchangeably.
Because the definition we use is broad in its definition, the research design that will be presented here will cover the overall research framework. A brief explanation will accompany each framework in order to assist the reader in designing the research design.
Research design framework
The following is a framework or sketch of a commonly used research design:
Formulation of the problem
Research objectives and benefits
Population and sample / participants / research subjects
Research variables / conceptual boundaries / conceptual framework
Method of collecting data
Data analysis method
The above design is not sacred, meaning that every study does not have to be exactly the same as the framework. Intutitively we can see that every point contained in the above design is indeed important, therefore there must be. For example, every research has a problem statement.
Important note goes to the hypothesis. In fact not all researchers, especially social researchers make hypotheses. According to him the hypothesis can limit the freedom of thought of social researchers. This problem is more suitable to be placed on the methodology debate table. Here we take it simply, namely the use of hypotheses is more necessary in quantitative research rather than qualitative.
In addition, the terms population and sample are also more relevant for quantitative research. Qualitative researchers usually use other terms, for example research subjects or participants. The reader does not need to force himself to write the same terms as the sample design above. I encourage readers to be creative using terms that are more relevant than the examples above if found.
Next, we briefly review the research design above from the title to writing the report.
Explanation of research design
The title is the shortest representation of the entire research substance. Making the title does not have to be at the beginning. I personally prefer making the title at the end when the report is nearing completion. However, I always make “judgments” to help remind the contents of the research being made.
Actually there are some tips for making a good research title, as explained in books, such as: affordable by the ability of researchers, attracting readers, arouse the curiosity of readers, relevant to the content, and so on. The tips in this post are only one, which represents content.
In practice it is not easy to make a title. Tutorial on how to make a good title can be useful if the reader has never tried it himself, reread, cross out, make a new title, cross out again, until it feels ‘click’. I think that making a research title is more like painting than writing. That is, writing the title is the art of finding phrases that are felt in accordance with the substance of the research.
Formulation of the problem
Super-brief understanding of the problem formulation is a case that wants to be investigated. In compiling the formulation of the problem, researchers usually question a phenomenon and define the phenomenon as a problem. In the eyes of others, maybe a phenomenon is not a problem at all, but in the eyes of researchers, what they want to study must be a problem.
In the problem formulation section, the researcher explains in detail what the problem is, where the points that are the problem need to be examined. Where do researchers get the problem that they want to study? From anywhere, for example, readings, phenomena around, curhatan other people, and so on. But keep in mind, in writing the formulation of the problem, researchers must be objective.
The formulation of the problem is often called a research question. So, the form of the problem formulation is a question. This question can be raised in the form of points or descriptions. I once wrote about an example problem formulation here as a reference if needed.
Research objectives and benefits
The purpose of this research is to answer the problem formulation. While the benefits of research are the benefits that certain parties can get if the research you are doing is complete. Making research goals and benefits is not as difficult as what one might imagine. Readers only need to look at the formulation of the problem that has been compiled.
Literature review is usually called the study of literature. In this framework the reader seeks, reads, and reviews readings that are relevant to the research topic. Quite often there are a lot of relevant literature. In this case, the reader must select which is more relevant, which is less relevant.
Not infrequently also, the literature sought is scarce. If this scarcity is found after an extensive and exhausting search, the reader can write in the proposal that the study of the topics covered is still small, evidenced by the lack of literature.
Hypotheses are needed if your research uses a quantitative approach. The hypothesis is formulated from the relationship between two or more variables which are temporary conclusions and need to be tested.
Some researchers prefer not to use hypotheses because they can curb the freedom of researchers in the field. This choice is plural taken by qualitative researchers who like to leave the “suitcase” theory before going to the field.
Population and sample
This section can also be called the subject of research or participants. Researchers need to explain who are the participants in this study and how to get it. In social research, a discussion of ethics may be written in this section.
The subject of social research is humans. Therefore, ethical aspects are important to discuss. Except for some studies that use a discourse analysis approach or post analysis which does not involve contact with humans as research subjects.
As with the previous section, more familiar research variables are used for quantitative research that requires hypotheses. Qualitative research usually uses the term concept boundary or conceptual framework. The definitions between concepts and variables are indeed different. Variables are more detailed and can be measured rather than concepts. However, qualitative research is usually applied to explore phenomena that are not easily measured.
Method of collecting data
Data collection methods applied must be able to answer the problem formulation. So, the task of researchers here is to select and sort out which methods of data collection are relevant. The relevance of data collection methods is very dependent on the formulation of the problem. Click here to read a full review of data collection methods.
Data analysis method
Data analysis methods can be done manually or with the help of a computer. How to do this also varies depending on what research method is used. Quantitative research often applies different analytical methods than qualitative research. The difference in data analysis can be seen from the different software used if the analysis is done with the help of a computer. For more details, see data analysis techniques here.
Write a report
The final framework of the research design is report writing. Writing research reports adjusted to what research is done. If the thesis research, then the writing of the report must be in accordance with the thesis, not the thesis or other.
The format of the research report is in principle in accordance with the framework that is the design of the study. So, when the reader is making a research design, actually the reader is also compiling a research report framework.