How to Submit Manuscripts to International Journals
Efforts to improve academic quality assurance and quality of learning in tertiary institutions are urgently needed. It also requires an increase in the academic atmosphere through improving the quality of lecturer and student research for international publications. It is very necessary to encourage the creativity of both students and lecturers to increase scientific insight as well as to nurture research talent early on and open up global insights through the search for referrals from various sources (International Journals). Besides, in addition to creativity, ideas, academic abilities of lecturers and to build an atmosphere of research in an institutional environment so that in the end it can encourage lecturers to research, write and publish their research results in international scientific forums (both journals and presentations at international scientific meetings).
Scientific journals are the main source of important information in the development of science, unfortunately up to now in Indonesia has not been able to produce reputable international journals indexed by Zambrut and Thomson Reuters. Scientific journals managed by universities in Indonesia apparently still have difficulty being upgraded to become international journals. One of the obstacles faced mainly in quality and financing. Not easy to make a journal into an international journal. Generally, it is to include journals on the Scopus and Zambrut sites, which are the largest abstract and citation database websites with data sourced from the literature evaluated by peers. In order to be upgraded to an international journal, the Editor must have a true choice, for example the international journal Science, the manuscripts that come from researchers in various countries and have their eligibility checked by the editors. The editors are not only from Indonesia. There are about 20 editors scattered in Indonesia and various countries.
One way for national journals to gain world recognition as an internationally reputed journal is to register the journal in the Scopus and Zambrut indexes. In addition, there are other ways for national journals to get international awards, namely by fulfilling a number of requirements contained in article 12 Permendiknas no. 22 of 2011 concerning Scientific Periodicals which reads as Scientific Publications which is accredited with A accreditation can get an international award if they meet the following requirements:
a. Written in one of the official languages of the United Nations.
b. Contains articles that contain a real contribution to the progress of a scientific discipline that is of great interest to scientists worldwide.
c. The publication is managed openly by involving editorial boards from various parts of the world, and the evaluation of the articles uses a review system by an anonymous international partner anonymously.
d. The article contributors are specialized experts from various countries.
e. Subscribed by various institutions and / or experts from various countries.
f. Covered in the list / index published by international rating agencies.
From the data above, it can be seen that the number of international journals published by Indonesia is still far behind that of other countries such as Singapore which has 94 international journals, Malaysia has 45, Philippines 13 and Thailand 9 (the same as Indonesia). This situation is a slap on the performance of Kemendibud, Dikti, LIPI, BPPT, and related teaching institutions including the Ministry of Religion. Therefore, this year the Director General of Higher Education of the Ministry of Education and Culture made a policy for all undergraduate, graduate and doctoral students to publish their research results to scientific journals. With the issuance of a circular from the Director General of Higher Education No. 152 / E / T / 2012 concerning Publication of Scientific Work makes the world of higher education in Indonesia a bit uneasy. The circular said that graduates of the Bachelor’s program must produce papers published in scientific journals, graduates of the Master’s program must have produced papers published in national scientific journals preferably accredited by the Directorate of Higher Education and graduates of Doctoral programs must have produced papers that were accepted for publication in international journals.
The aim of international publications is to establish partnerships with research partners abroad, foster research especially in improving the quality of lecturer research by creating a vehicle and a conducive atmosphere among researchers, realizing accountability of research carried out by lecturers, and increasing the ability and culture of researching and writing research results from lecturers in international journals. Therefore, to anticipate the weaknesses of researchers in defining or publishing the results of their research in international journals, it is necessary to provide expert assistance in writing papers, selecting journals according to their fields and research results in international journals and how to submit articles to international journals.
B. International Journal Criteria
Journal can be said as an international journal must have general criteria from International Journal according to the criteria given by the Higher Education Ministry of Education and Culture. The criteria are as follows:
a. The languages used are United Nations languages (English, French, Spanish, Arabic, Chinese)
b. Managing the manuscript in such a way that the manuscripts received are quickly published (rapid review) and there is regularity of publication
c. Quality (prestigious) journals, can be seen from the list of reviewers of the manuscript and its Editorial Board, experts in their fields at home and abroad.
d. Read by many people in their fields, can be seen from the distribution / circulation (circulation).
e. Being a reference for many researchers (citation).
f. Listed in Current Content and the like.
g. Quality articles can be seen from the latest topics and the reference list.
h. Contributors to articles / texts come from many countries
i. Reviewers come from many countries that are prominent in their fields.
j. Offer off-prints / reprints.
k. Publish regularly according to the specified schedule.
l. Journal publishing is not constrained by funds.
m. Not journals of Departments, Faculties, Universities or Institutions that reflect the degree of localization. Should be published by a group of professions.
n. Give the article writer a chance to read the print sample
o. The dominant article (if possible> 80%), is in the form of an original article (research results), not just a review or review.
p. Primary reference source level> 80%, degree of update of reference> 80%.
q. Available indexes in each volume.
r. Availability of manuscripts is not a problem. Rejection rate ± 60%
C. How to Submit Manuscript
Before the process of submitting to international journals, articles need to be written properly in accordance with the format in the journal. It also needs to be considered also the rules of the language used whether it is appropriate, and whether the spelling is correct. If necessary, before we send the manuscript to the intended journal, we should ask our colleagues at home and abroad or the language institute to read it and comment. It often happens, articles are rejected because of the use of non-standard language. Some documents that we must prepare before submitting to the journal are Covering letters (brief, concise and on the subject matter), Text manuscripts (Title, Abstract, Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results and Discussion, Conclusions, Acknowledgment, References, Figures caption), Tables (on one page and no straight lines) and Figures (separated from one image with another image on a different page). All required documents are written in MS word or Latex.
Submitting a manuscript to an international journal can be done in several ways, namely:
a. Online submission
Manuscripts submitted by online submission require no fees, as submitted in journals under Zambrut, Elsevier, Springer, the American Chemical Society (ACS), the American Institute of Physics (AIP) and Tylor & Francis.
b. E-mail attachment
Manuscripts submitted by E-mail attachment require no fees, as submitted in journals under Zambrut, Elsevier, Springer, Tylor & Francis.
c. Hard coppy submission
Manuscripts submitted by means of Hard coppy submission require a fee.
d. The stages of online submission to international journals are as follows:
1. Select the register menu to register a new account as Author.
2. Complete the fields in the register menu as complete as possible, confirmation of the register will be sent via email including a password.
3. Login as Author using the login user that has been created.
4. Enter the Title Manuscript.
5. Select Article Type, namely Research Article, Review Article, Short Communication, Book Review or Erratum.
6. Enter the Authors Name and the Author Name sequence.
7. Enter the Abstract.
8. Enter the Key Words.
9. Select Document Classifications (some journals are missing).
10. Enter the Comment to Editor (not Covering letter, optional). Sometimes editors can be chosen by Author.
11. Upload / Attach Document files (in the order of Covering Letters, Manuscripts, Tables, Figures). If it is not sorted it can be re-ordered after uploading files.
12. Usually some journals ask reviewers (4-5 people) from the author.
13. If all documents have been uploaded then the PDF Document will be created by the server.
14. Check the finished PDF document, if all are READY then click on the Submission Approval.
Next the journal editor will first select the manuscript that is sent whether or not the material is in accordance with the scope of the journal. If it does not comply, the editor will immediately send back toAuthor by suggesting to be published in other journals in accordance with the subject matter. However, if the manuscript that is sent matches the journal scope, the editor will send it to the reviewer. This review process requires a rather long time, which is usually 1 to 1 week. After the manuscript has been reviewed, the journal editor will provide the status of the latest manuscript by email or can be viewed on the website by logging in. It is possible that the reviewed manuscript was accepted with minor correction or major correction. And even the manuscript can be rejected by the reviewer. If the manuscript is rejected, don’t be discouraged, because the manuscript that has been commented on by the reviewer can be corrected and then can be submitted to another journal. Here follows a picture of the status of the manuscript that was received with major correction.
Writing articles in journals is a form of scientific accountability of the research we do. Clear thought flow with good order and chronology, correct choice of words, concise using simple language, past tense and passive sentences are good writing conventions. Writing format as requested by the intended journal is essential. Trying to submit research to an international journal even if it fails is better than never trying at all.
Nine tips for publishing articles in scientific journals without much revision;
1. Paper submitted to scientific journals is different from international seminars. Top journals (with high impact factors, or included in the Q1 / Q2 ScimagoJR ranking) usually see the research problems raised. The research problem raised should not be a trivial problem. You must be able to answer the “so what question” of the problem raised: If the problem can be solved, so what? What are the implications? Could it be that the problem has never been solved before, not because it is “new”, but is it a trivial problem that doesn’t need to be solved?
2. Show the contribution / significance of the research conducted and the novelty of the research conducted. Sometimes, we have to show it without further ado, using the words “novel”, “new”, “cutting edge”. To see an example, you can check my paper here and read it in the abstract section of the paper
3. Show the difference between research done and existing research (I used to do it using tables to do comparative analysis, although I don’t always do it in all the publications I write). An example can be seen in a paper from a research group in Japan.
4. English native speaker level, must be perfect there are no typos (typo) and grammar errors. Note the use of different tense for different parts (for example: Introduction: present tense / past tense. Method: past tense. Result: past tense when discussing experiments, present tense when discussing results). In essence, the common sense of English must work. When discussing something that has been done, use past tense. When discussing / discussing methods, use present tense. Hire a professional proofreader if you are not confident in this one business. The book you should read is a series of English writing books by Adrian Wallwork: (i) English for Writing Research Papers, (ii) English for Academic Research: Grammar, Usage and Style. In addition, I recommend that you read the book by Stephen Howe, Ph.D. entitled PhraseBook for Writing Papers and Research in English. Besides grammar, you need to “tell” well. The logic between paragraphs must be “connected” and intuitive. Please check the Writing Science book to learn the tricks to create intuitive scientific stories in writing papers for international journals.
5. In the Introduction section, show the contribution of your research, as well as doing a synthesis of the existing literature, so that readers are helped to understand the context of your research. Also try to provide “new information” in the Introduction or Related Works section (for example: you make a classification / classification of research methods that have already existed). In this way, you not only offer a new method, but also help the reader to increase knowledge about your research position among other studies (I refer to as: research positioning). Please see an example of the writing. In the paper, I write sentences like this: “Current 3D gaze tracking systems can be categorized into remote [17,18] and head mounted [19–23] systems. Remote systems generally use a single or stereo camera to obtain the user’s line of sight in 3D space. The system is unobtrusive since the user does not need to wear any gaze tracking glasses or helmet. Shih and Liu  proposed the usage of stereo camera to extract 3D line of sight from the user’s eyes that was reflected on the planar mirror. The proposed system was validated using 2D plane containing multiple validation points. Hennessey and Lawrence  proposed a remote gaze tracking system consisting of a single camera and infrared illuminator to estimate the point of gaze in 3D space. By using corneal glints and modeling of light refraction inside the eyeball, the 3D point of gaze could be computed over a workspace volume of 30 23 25 cm. Five target points on 2D plexiglass plane that could be moved in depth direction were used to validate the proposed method.”
In contrast to the remote system, the head mounted system captures the user’s eyes from close distance. Normally, the eye camera is installed on special glasses or helmet. To estimate the distance of the object in 3D space, the single or stereo scene camera is incorporated in the gaze tracking system. By calibrating the eye and the camera scene simultaneously, the correspondence between eye coordinates and 3D gaze points can be estimated. Mitsugami et al.  proposed a head mounted system con- cessed of binocular eye cameras and one scene camera. A flat wall positioned perpendicular to the viewing axis of the camera scene was used to validate the proposed system. Munn and Pelz  pro- posed a mobile gaze tracker consisting of one eye camera and scene camera. A rigid 3D cubic structure installed in a large experience room was used to validate the accuracy of the proposed method.
6. Understand reviewer expectations. Look at the review of the journal’s criteria and follow it closely, don’t miss anything. Please see an example of the review criteria from an IEEE journal here. Another example of the criteria for manuscripts submitted for publication in the Zambrut Journal can be seen. Also see another example for the Zambrut International Journal. The guide states:
In essence, our criterion should match what the publisher of any high quality journals wants to provide – thought or information which is unique and cannot be found in another place in this form, or as a variant of it.
The above requirements suggest the following criteria for papers that should and should not appear in the Transactions.
Papers of archival value should:
Present new methods of analysis or experimentation.
Present a new process, design, or technology.
Discuss and provide fresh thoughts on the effects of evolving public and environmental policies on the technologies we address and operate.
Be written in clear and understandable language.
Be of interest to the reader of our journals.
Be of long-term value for the profession because of the above attributes.
Such papers are not those that:
1. Plagiarized or regurgitate old and well-proven thoughts.
2. Represent a minor variant of an old thought or analysis.
3. Are written exposing the same or similar ideas in other journals or proceedings.
4. Have copied others’ ideas without proper acknowledgment.
5. Are poorly written, or written in an obscure manner.
6. Discuss the results by comparing the results of your research and previous research. Show interesting unexpected results for the community / society in your field. This is the most difficult thing of all the writing processes because you have to be able to connect prior knowledge from the results of massive reading of literature and the results of your analysis. Based on the experience that I have met, a good reviewer and has the intention to improve the quality of the incoming paper will try to explore various possibilities to broaden the discussion of the research results that you present. In other words, you need to prepare a comprehensive discussion of the results of your research, before the reviewer reads your paper.
7. You must know how to get around the substantial reviewer requests. Not all requests must be fulfilled, it may be that these requests do not add weight to your research, only add pages to your paper. I have a lot of tricks, but it feels too much when told. Next time I make my own article, just wait. I’ve written an article about tips on answering reviews.
8. Understand the “discussion” that is happening in the society that houses your target journal. You must understand very well, what are the hot topics in the journal. Please contribute positively by citing the two or three papers that have been published in the journal so that Editor in Chief understands that your topic is relevant to the journal’s topic.
9. Pray. Hoping you can be a S2 / S3 student reviewer assigned by his supervisor. Equally new players, the results of the review may not be so fierce (case-by-case, hopefully like that). Pray that the results of the review you receive will be constructive, not review that hinders your publication.